What is DNS zone transfer?

The DNS is a hierarchy structure that looks like a tree. It is divided into layers where the top is the Root than the TLD-level, followed by the domain and the subdomain. You can get the right to manage a particular part of the DNS that is related to the domain you have purchase. You can manage it through DNS master zones that you can create from the software you are using or through the control panel of your managed DNS provider. 

What is a DNS master zone? 

The DNS master zone file is a DNS database of DNS records for a part of the namespace. A zone file typically will have SOA record, NS records, AAAA, A, MX, TXT, and other DNS records for the domain or subdomain. The master zone will be saved on a master DNS server (also known as the Primary DNS server). 

What is it?

The DNS zone transfer is the process of copying the information from the Master DNS server to the Secondary server or servers. The copying can be done by pushing the update from the Master DNS server to the Secondary servers or by a pull from the Secondaries to obtain the new changes.

The DNS administrator can limit which Secondary DNS server can ask for DNS zone transfer by whitelisting their IP addresses. You don’t want everybody on the Internet to be able to get all of your DNS records because many might be internals and not for everyone’s eyes.

Transferring a DNS zone using Dig


TCP Monitoring – Everything you need to know

When you run an online business, you want to be sure that it stays online. So there is no better way than to set up a monitoring service. You can choose different protocols and methods of monitoring. One of the most common ones is TCP Monitoring.

Why should you monitor your server?

The main reason why you should monitor your server is to be sure that it is online. 

It is not uncommon to have different problems like incorrect settings, DDoS attacks, hardware malfunction, and more, and experience downtime (offline time). Unfortunately, if you don’t have an active monitoring system, you won’t get any notification when downtime happens.

During the downtime, your clients won’t be able to use your site, application, or service, which can lead to losses and a damaged reputation.

What is TCP Monitoring?

TCP Monitoring, a.k.a. TCP/IP Monitoring, is a process of checking a device (server or network equipment) by establishing a TCP connection (using the TCP protocol) and gathering statistics about latency and packet loss.

The main reasons to have TCP Monitoring are to surveillance your network or devices for communication problems, find the problems early, and get notified on time. 

Depending on the TCP Monitoring Software, there will be various notification methods. For example, it could send constant notifications to a device or schedule reports after a particular amount of time.

A TCP Monitoring can be used for multiple devices too. You can use it to check all of the connected devices on your network. Imagine if you have a big office with 500+ computers. By using such a monitor, you can see if the connectivity is alright and if you need to fix a problem.

A professional TCP Monitoring on your server can:

Discover incoming connections. It will find new connections, and it can analyze the relationship between the processes and applications. That way, you can understand why a particular application is slow.

View the health status of network hardware. You can see all the available network hardware and its status in one place. You can see if there is a problematic device or if everything is in order. That will help you to pinpoint problems right when they arise. You can later resolve the issue with the gathered information without wasting time troubleshooting.

Determine the communication route. A TCP Monitor can map the network and show you the route each TCP query takes. That way, you can find out if the communication is established through the most efficient channel or not. Then, you can use the information and re-route the network devices to get better performance.


Now you know why a TCP Monitor is so important. It takes little to no resources, but it can help you detect a problem right from the beginning. Thanks to it, you can find out where the problem is and start fixing it as fast as possible. Such a monitor will help you have better uptime.

An introduction to DNS records & How to check them?

DNS records – Definition

DNS records are simple instructions that are associated with a particular domain name. In the DNS zone, the full collection of entries is compiled in a zone file. All of this information is stored on the authoritative DNS server for the relevant domain name. Each record serves a certain purpose. As a result, they are all extremely important for the domain’s proper operation.


7 Fundamental DNS terms explained in a simple way

In our article, we will see several DNS terms that will assist you in managing your domain name as effectively as possible. So, let’s begin.

Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a global system that connects domain names to IP addresses. It has a multi-level hierarchical structure that is decentralized. It is quite useful and beneficial to people. If DNS didn’t exist, we have to input and remember every IP address on the web pages if DNS didn’t exist, which would be difficult. So, with the Domain Name System, we can employ easy-to-remember domain names and the page will load. It’s really simple. 


How does the Host command work?

Host command explained

The Host command is a built-in utility software with a command-line interface (CLI) for DNS probing. You could find it pre-installed on most Linux distros like – Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Red Hat, or macOS. It serves perfectly for network diagnostics. In addition, the most common use of host command is to complete DNS lookups and check different information about a domain name and its DNS records.

 It is a very light and quick tool that can give you data about different DNS records, such as A, AAAA, MX, NS, SOA, and more. In addition, it can provide you with information for the host, for instance, its IP addresses or check nameservers.

Valuable Linux Host command examples


Ping command – definition and details

Ping command

Ping command is one of the built-in network diagnostic commands that you have inside your OS (Windows, Linux, macOS, FreeBSD, etc.). Ping is used for checking the connectivity between your device and the target that cloud be a hostname like google.com or IP address like

Ping, by default, will send 4, 32-byte packets to the target using the ICMP (Internet control message protocol).

How does Ping command work? Detailed explanation

Default result of a Ping command


What is a DNS amplification attack?

What a scary combination! Just by reading “attack”, you can feel goosebumps. Then, when “amplification” is added, you can visualize an attack whose power could be increased to damage even more.

What is a DNS amplification attack?

The DNS amplification attack is the type of DDoS attack where a hacker spoofs its IP address and changes it to the target’s IP address, then performs a DNS query access to open, public recursive DNS servers to saturate the target (system) with DNS response traffic. The amplification comes from the answer, which may be many times bigger than the original request. 


How does the DMARC record work?

The DMARC record explained.

The short acronym DMARC stands for Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance. It is a mechanism, which provides the email receivers and senders to define if a particular message is legitimately from the sender. And also, what action to follows if it isn’t. The DMARC record helps recognize more easily phishing, and spam messages received in the users’ mailbox. It also assists in keeping these emails away from there. 


DNS troubleshooting – commands

You can troubleshoot different DNS problems using the built-in commands that you already have on your computer. No matter if you are a Windows, Linux, or macOS user, you have various commands included in your OS. Here are the 5 most popular DNS troubleshooting commands that you should know and how to use them.

Traceroute (Linux and macOS) / Tracert command (Windows)

Traceroute command on Linux and macOS or Tracert on Windows is a built-in software that you can use for DNS troubleshooting. With this one, you can understand better the route of the DNS queries. You will see each individual hop with their response time, hostname, and IP address, and you will see a complete picture of the route to the target.